What is the normal size of an outdoor patio ? (Not attached to the house)?
I have a fairly large backyard and looking to have lounge chairs, sofa, gazebo, and firepit but would like to have decent walking room.
Also, do you recommend concrete or pavers ?
There is no normal size, it’s what fits your yard and your budget. I would prefer pavers over anything else. Plain concrete has a tendency to crack when poured in large slabs, even with expansion joints,reinforcing wire, and fiber. Stamped concrete is more expensive and requires maintenance to keep it looking fresh. Pavers will last a very long time with no maintenance, and cost a little more than plain concrete, but about half that of stamped concrete.
How much does it cost to resurface or repave a driveway?
I have a two-car garage in Florida. My driveway is probably 35-feet long by about 10-feet wide. It’s over 30 years old and beat up. How much would it cost to have it resurfaced or repaved?
I have a two-car garage in Florida. My concrete driveway is probably 35-feet long by about 10-feet wide. It’s over 30 years old and beat up. How much would it cost to have it resurfaced or repaved? Homeowners restrictions require concrete.
Concrete resurfacing is not a terribly difficult project, but for your highly visible and homeowner-restricted driveway, I suggest you hire a local, reputable concrete contractor.
For a plain, gray concrete resurface of < 1" thick, expect to pay about $2 a square foot.
For a really bad or porous existing surface, or for special patterns or colors of stamped concrete, expect to pay between $4 – $8 a square foot.
You can save a lot of money doing some or all of the work yourself. You can at least scrape away the loose material and clean it thoroughly.
Here's an excellent article for more detailed information, as well as some helpful do-it-yourself tips.
What is the best and cheapest way to make a path from my driveway to my front door, 93 feet away?
93 feet from my driveway to my fron door. Need info on best and most ecdonomical way to make path.
If you don’t have to worry about it being washed away, small gravel ((approximately 1/2″ size) is the cheapest and fairly durable way. If you have to worry about water runoff washing the gravel, then a layer of large gravel (approx 1″ size or larger) with a top coat of small gravel to make walking easier.
Next in cost is probably stepping stones, concrete or flagstones. One of the most practical and economical walks with a lot of choices in appearance is stamped concrete. We have three walkways that are stamped concrete as well as our patio.
How can you repair a limestone stoop cap without having to replace it?
It has weathered pit marks that are less than an inch. I wonder if cement (and what kind) would be able to do it.
You could try concrete product, acid etching, color and stamp it. Should be fairly easy. Good luck
What is the significance of timber to a civil engineer?
What is the significance of timber to a civil engineer? Why is it important for a civil engineer to know about the properties of timber and its uses?
Essentially the same as lumber to a civil engineer, the allowable values for stresses are lower because it is harder to find a nice piece of timber, lumber is smaller and easier to get a let’s say clear piece (strictly a clear piece has not knots anywhere), when I say clear here I mean not that knotty, pretty straight.
If you want to get really picky, timber is what we call poles and larger pieces of wood, more commonly used dimensions are called lumber. Availability of timber is an issue and sometimes a size isn’t available, but usually anything larger than 6×6 is timber, including circular poles. You can get some very nice looking, dramatic houses if you pay for the engineering.
We’re still using the NDS and underlying ASTM testing to determine values. If you’ve seen a Gander Mountain store, there is a lot of timber on the outside, for appearance, but nonetheless designed by a structural engineer to stand up to wind, snow, etc.
Timber is also commonly used in Post and Timber construction (an alternate to “stick frame” construction), as well as figuring in to a lot of religious structures in the U.S.
The ASTM testing standards are extremely important to the civil/structural engineer working on wood structures. But they are not very visible at the design level.
X) Offhand, I don’t know the ASTM tests, but you can try asking someone over at the American Wood Council for specifics, awc.org, they have an email, a blog, and a phone number. They’re a great source of information.
X) Massively significant, wood is a grown material, so testing is needed to establish confidence in what loads wood (lumber or timber) can safely support. The National Design Specification (Standard? I forget what S stands for), is released every four years or so, 2005, 2001, 1997, 1994, 1991, etc. It establishes safe stresses for wood design for most structural species (softwood, typically), including Southern Pine, Spruce Pine Fir, and Douglas Fir-Larch (the three most common structural grade species in the US). Since the forest folks are cutting the lumber faster and faster, growing them with chemicals or who knows what, the allowable stress values in lumber tend to decline every four years, meaning if you use old values, you are potentially unsafe. This has to do with the rate of production of the material and the quality of what is being cut down (old growth timber is now quite rare, and that stuff usually gets diverted to furniture or planking that people get to see anyway, not hidden inside a wall at the prices they want to charge for it).
X) As above, you need the testing (the NDS, not individual testing on the wood you’re going to use on a project, it isn’t like concrete where you take batches and test them every time you pour, wood typically doesn’t have testing of material specific to the job), to design properly. The NDS is the critical reference for wood design in the US, the ASTM tests are behind the numbers in the NDS, no testing, no NDS, no wood structures stamped by a civil/structural engineer.
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